AskDefine | Define ginseng

Dictionary Definition

ginseng

Noun

1 aromatic root of ginseng plants
2 Chinese herb with palmately compound leaves and small greenish flowers and forked aromatic roots believed to have medicinal powers [syn: nin-sin, Panax ginseng, Panax schinseng, Panax pseudoginseng]

User Contributed Dictionary

see Ginseng

English

Alternative forms

Etymology

From etyl cmn rénshēn (simplified: 人参; traditional: 人參).

Pronunciation

/ˈdʒɪnsɛŋ/

Noun

  1. Any of several plants, of the genus Panax, having forked roots supposed to have medicinal properties.
  2. The root of such a plant, or an extract of these roots.
    • 1855, Sir Richard Burton, Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah & Meccah, Dover 1964, p. 56-7:
      When the Afghan princes find it necessary to employ Chob-Chini, (the Jin-seng, or China root so celebrated as a purifier, tonic, and aphrodisiac) they choose the spring season

Translations

any of several plants, of the genus Panax
root of such a plant, or the extract

French

Etymology

Pronunciation

  • /ʒin.sɑ̃ɡ/, /Zin.sA~g/

Noun

  1. ginseng (plant)

Extensive Definition

Ginseng refers to species within Panax, a genus of 11 species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, in the family Araliaceae. They grow in the Northern Hemisphere in eastern Asia (mostly northern China, Korea, and eastern Siberia), typically in cooler climates; Panax vietnamensis, discovered in Vietnam, is the southernmost ginseng found. This article focuses on the Series Panax ginsengs, which are the adaptogenic herbs, principally Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius. Ginseng is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides.
Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is not a true ginseng at all. It is another adaptogen, but a different plant that was renamed as "Siberian ginseng" as a marketing ploy; instead of a fleshy root, it has a woody root; instead of ginsenosides, eleutherosides are present, (see below).

Etymology

The English word ginseng derives from the Chinese term rénshēn (simplified: 人参; traditional: 人蔘), literally "man root" (referring to the root's characteristic forked shape, resembling the legs of a man).
The botanical/genus name Panax means "all-heal" in Greek, sharing the same origin as "panacea," and was applied to this genus because Linnaeus was aware of its wide use in Chinese medicine for muscle relaxant.

Traditional uses

Both American and Panax (Asian) ginseng roots are taken orally as adaptogens, aphrodisiacs, nourishing stimulants, and in the treatment of type II diabetes, including sexual dysfunction in men. The root is most often available in dried form, either in whole or sliced form. Ginseng leaf, although not as highly prized, is sometimes also used; as with the root it is most often available in dried form.
This ingredient may also be found in some popular Energy Drinks: usually the "tea" varieties or Functional Foods. Usually ginseng is in subclinical doses and it does not have measurable medicinal effects. It can be found in cosmetic preparations as well, with similar lack of effect.
Ginseng root can be double steamed with chicken meat as a soup. (See samgyetang.)

Modern science and ginseng

It has been difficult to verify the medicinal benefits of ginseng using science, as there are contradictory results from different studies, possibly due to the wide variety and quality of ginseng used in studies. High-quality studies of the effects of ginseng are rare.
Ginseng is promoted as an adaptogen (a product that increases the body's resistance to stress), one which can to a certain extent be supported with reference to its anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties, although animal experiments to determine whether longevity and health were increased in the presence of stress gave negative results.
A comparative, randomized and double-blind study at the National Autonomous University of Mexico indicates it may be "a promising dietary supplement" when assessed for an increase in quality of life . It should be noted, however, that exclusion rates in this study were high. 124 participants were excluded from this study "due to lack of compliance with the treatment" whereas 164 participants in the control group and 338 participants in the ginseng group completed the study.
P. ginseng appear to inhibit some characteristics associated with cancer in animal models; nevertheless, this effect is unclear in humans.
There are references in literature, including authoritative compendiums, that show interactions with ginseng. Herbalist Jonathan Treasure of the United States National Institute of Mental Health traces the growth of misinformation on an alleged adverse herb-drug interaction between the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine and Asian ginseng (P. ginseng C.A. Meyer). This originally was mentioned in a 1985 editorial by Shader and Greenblatt in the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Shader and Greenblatt devoted a couple of lines to the case of 64 year-old woman who took an undisclosed dose for an undisclosed time of a dietary supplement product called “Natrol High” while concurrently taking phenelzine 60 mg qd. She experienced symptoms of “insomnia, headache, and tremulousness”. Treasure contacted Natrol by email and discovered within ten minutes that there was no P. ginseng in the formula, but instead Eleutherococcus which was then called by the popular name "Siberian ginseng" and it was given in a subclinical dosage mixed with a variety of other herbs. The purported interaction effects are well-known side effects of phenelzine alone, which had been given in a high dosage and are not at all suggestive of Eleutherococcus. However this misinformed article with a misidentified herb has been picked up in literature searches, megastudies and is now documented by conventional medical authorities such as Stockley’s, and is repeated in several botanical monographs e.g. World Health Organization (WHO 1999).

Ginseng and reproductive activity

A 2002 study by the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine (published in the annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) found that in laboratory animals, both Asian and American forms of ginseng enhance libido and copulatory performance. These effects of ginseng may not be due to changes in hormone secretion, but to direct effects of ginseng, or its ginsenoside components, on the central nervous system and gonadal tissues In males, ginsenosides can facilitate penile erection. This is consistent with traditional Chinese medicine and Native American medicinal uses of ginseng.
Ginseng is known to contain phytoestrogens.

Side effects

One of P. ginsengs most common side-effects is the inability to sleep. Other side-effects can include nausea, diarrhea, euphoria, headaches, epistaxis, high blood pressure, low blood pressure, and mastalgia.

Overdose

The common adaptogen ginsengs (P. ginseng and P. quinquefolia) are generally considered to be relatively safe even in large amounts.
P. ginseng is not recommended within Chinese Medicine to be administered along with anti-infective herbs unless a person is quite debilitated, because of the fear that the pathogen will be tonified. Herbalists in China believed this and according to Xu Dachun in his brief essay on ginseng (1757 A.D., during the Qing Dynasty): "if one administers Ginseng of a purely supplementing nature, then one will merely supplement the evil influences and help them settle down. In minor cases, the evil influences will, as a result of such mistaken therapy, never leave the body again. In serious cases, death is inevitable."

Common classification

P. quinquefolius American ginseng (root)

Ginseng that is produced in the United States and Canada is particularly prized in Chinese societies, and many ginseng packages are prominently colored red, white, and blue.
According to Traditional Chinese Medicine, American Ginseng promotes Yin energy, cleans excess Yang in the body, calms the body. The reason it has been claimed that American ginseng promotes Yin (shadow, cold, negative, female) while East Asian ginseng promotes Yang (sunshine, hot, positive, male) is that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, things living in cold places or northern side of mountains or southern side of rivers are strong in Yang and vice versa, so that the two are balanced. Chinese/Korean ginseng grows in northeast China and Korea, the coldest area known to many Koreans in traditional times. Thus, ginseng from there is supposed to be very Yang. Originally, American ginseng was imported into China via subtropical Guangzhou, the seaport next to Hong Kong, so Chinese doctors believed that American ginseng must be good for Yin, because it came from a hot area. However they did not know that American ginseng can only grow in temperate regions. Nonetheless the root is legitimately classified as more Yin because it generates fluids.
The two main components of ginseng are in different proportions in the Asian and American varieties, and may well be the cause of the excitatory versus tonic natures.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ginsenoside#Mechanism_of_action
The ginseng is sliced and a few slices are simmered in hot water to make a decoction.
Most North American ginseng is produced in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and British Columbia and the American state of Wisconsin, according to Agri-food Canada. P. quinquefolius is now also grown in northern China.
A randomized, double-blind study shows that an extract of American ginseng reduces influenza cases in the elderly when compared to placebo.
A study shows that Red ginseng reduces the relapse of gastric cancer versus control
A study of ginseng's effects on rats show that while both White ginseng and Red ginseng reduce the incidence of cancer, the effects appear to be greater with Red ginseng.
Falcarinol, a seventeen-carbon diyne fatty alcohol was isolated from carrot and red ginseng, shown to have potent anticancer properties on primary mammary epithelial (breast cancer) cells. Other acetylenic fatty alcohols in ginseng (panaxacol, panaxydol, panaxytriol) have antibiotic properties.

Wild ginseng

Wild ginseng is ginseng that has not been planted and cultivated domestically, rather it is that which grows naturally and is harvested from wherever it is found to be growing. It is considered to be superior to field farmed ginseng by various authorities, and it has been shown to contain higher levels of ginsenoside. Wild ginseng is relatively rare and even increasingly endangered, due in large part to high demand for the product in recent years, which has led to the wild plants being sought out and harvested faster than new ones can grow (it requires years for a ginseng root to reach maturity). Wild ginseng can be either Asian or American and can be processed to be red ginseng.
There are woods grown American ginseng programs in Maine, Tennessee, Virginia and North Carolina. and United Plant Savers has been encouraging the woods planting of ginseng both to restore natural habitats and to remove pressure from any remaining wild ginseng, and they offer both advice and sources of rootlets. Woods grown plants have comparable value to wild grown ginseng of similar age.

Ginseng alternatives

These mostly adaptogenic plants are sometimes referred to as ginsengs, but they are either from a different family or genus. Only Jiaogulan actually contains compounds closely related to ginsenosides, although ginsenosides alone do not determine the effectiveness of ginseng. Since each of these plants have different uses, one should research their properties before using. Descriptions and differentiation can be found in David Winston and Steven Maimes book Adaptogens
Other plants which are referred to as ginsengs may not be adaptogens (although notoginseng is in the Panax Series):
ginseng in Arabic: جينسنغ
ginseng in Catalan: Panax
ginseng in Danish: Ginseng-slægten
ginseng in German: Ginseng
ginseng in Spanish: Ginseng
ginseng in Esperanto: Ginsengo
ginseng in French: Ginseng
ginseng in Galician: Ginseng
ginseng in Korean: 인삼속
ginseng in Icelandic: Ginseng
ginseng in Italian: Panax
ginseng in Hebrew: ג'ינסנג
ginseng in Lithuanian: Ženšenis
ginseng in Hungarian: Ginzeng
ginseng in Dutch: Ginseng
ginseng in Japanese: トチバニンジン属
ginseng in Norwegian: Ginseng
ginseng in Polish: Panax
ginseng in Portuguese: Ginseng
ginseng in Russian: Женьшень
ginseng in Finnish: Ginseng
ginseng in Slovenian: Ginseng
ginseng in Swedish: Ginsenger
ginseng in Thai: โสม
ginseng in Vietnamese: Chi Sâm
ginseng in Turkish: Ginseng
ginseng in Chinese: 人蔘屬
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